Other oncological emergencies include hypoglycaemia pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade seizures hyperviscosity syndrome this is usually associated with waldenstroms macroglobulinemia and airway obstruction adverse effects of chemotherapy may also require urgent intervention eg extravasation and anaphylactic reactions. Treatment of oncologic emergencies yee gc et al american society of clinical oncology clinical practice guidelines the role of bisphosphonates in multiple myeloma . An oncologic emergency may be defined as any acute potentially morbid or life threatening event directly or indirectly related to a patients tumor or its treatment the differential diagnosis for a patient with cancer who presents with acute conditions includes medical emergencies not related to the patients diagnosis of cancer. This chapter covers important oncological emergencies including hypercalcemia superior venous caval obstruction spinal cord compression and neutropenic sepsis. This is an oncological emergency where cancer cells become destroyed but in the process large amounts of potassium and uric acid are released from those destroyed cells this can cause acute renal failure and cardiac dysrhythmias
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